Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.
This study harnesses the CatBoost algorithm to predict transition temperatures (Tc) of superconducting materials, addressing challenges in dataset refinement and feature selection. Leveraging the Jabir and Soraya packages for generating atomic descriptors and selecting crucial features, the model achieved high accuracy with an R-squared (R2) of 0.952 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 6.45 K. Additionally, a novel web application for Tc prediction underscores the impactful synergy between AI and materials science.
This research introduces a novel preference alignment framework to address performance degradation in multi-modal large language models (MLLMs) caused by visual instruction tuning. By leveraging preference data collected from a visual question answering dataset, the proposed method significantly improves the MLLM's instruction-following capabilities, surpassing the performance of the original language model on various benchmarks.
Researchers investigated the feasibility of using machine learning (ML) models to predict the punching shear capacity of post-tensioned ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) flat slabs. By proposing correction factors based on finite element method-artificial intelligence (FEM-AI/ML) techniques, they extended the validity of punching shear capacity provisions in design codes like EC2 and ACI-318 to include PT-UHPC flat slabs.
The UK’s first master’s degree course focused on applying skills in AI to engineering and design is to begin this year at the University of Bath.
Researchers utilized various machine learning algorithms to develop predictive models for identifying students at risk of dropping out of secondary and higher education in Mexico. Leveraging demographic, socioeconomic, and educational data, the study demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial neural networks (ANN) in achieving high reliability (99%) in predicting school dropout, highlighting key variables such as school attendance, type, location, occupation, income, and marital status.
Researchers harnessed AI technology to create deepfake videos portraying various facial expressions, investigating their influence on observer perceptions in job interviews. The study highlights how deepfake facilitates controlled experimentation in studying nonverbal behavior, shedding light on its crucial role in social interactions and offering insights for job interview training and beyond.
This article outlines a pioneering AI-integrated model for international legal education, aiming to revolutionize traditional teaching methods by leveraging AI's capabilities. The model, employing correlation analysis, AI knowledge mapping, and neural algorithms, promises personalized learning experiences, efficient assessment, and enhanced career prospects for students, as evidenced by its impressive performance in practical teaching evaluations.
Researchers addressed challenges in Federated Learning (FL) within Space-Air-Ground Information Networks (SAGIN) by introducing the LCNSFL algorithm. LCNSFL, based on a Double Deep Q Network (DDQN), strategically selects nodes to minimize time and energy costs. Simulation results demonstrate LCNSFL's superiority over traditional methods, offering efficient convergence and resource utilization in dynamic network environments, essential for practical applications in SAGIN.
Researchers introduced a novel control strategy for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs) utilizing a self-tuning nonsingular fast terminal sliding manifold (SNFTSM) to enhance convergence and tracking accuracy. Integrated with a high-gain disturbance observer (HGDO) and a super-twisting algorithm (STW), the approach effectively addressed uncertainties and reduced chattering in control signals, demonstrating superior performance compared to existing methods in numerical simulations.
Researchers introduced the Aesthetic Diffusion Model, utilizing AI to swiftly generate visually appealing interior designs based on text descriptions. By incorporating aesthetic scores, decoration styles, and spatial functionalities, the model streamlines the design process, enhancing efficiency and creativity while offering practical solutions for interior designers. Experimental results demonstrate the model's superiority, paving the way for future advancements in AI-driven interior design.
Researchers developed FlashNet, a hybrid AI method, to forecast lightning flashes up to 48 hours ahead, surpassing traditional NWP models. Utilizing features from high-resolution NWP data and employing deep neural networks, FlashNet demonstrated superior accuracy, reliability, and sharpness, offering valuable insights for various sectors vulnerable to lightning-related risks. The study highlights FlashNet's potential for medium-range forecasting and recommends further exploration for extending forecast horizons and addressing global applicability.
This paper outlines ten principles for designing elementary English lessons using AI chatbots, addressing crucial aspects like media selection, motivation, feedback, and collaboration. Through a rigorous methodology involving expert validation and usability evaluation, the study offers practical guidelines to bridge the gap between theoretical insights and effective implementation, paving the way for enhanced language instruction and educational adaptability in diverse contexts.
Researchers compared the creative capabilities of humans and ChatGPT on verbal divergent thinking tasks, revealing that the AI model consistently outperformed humans in generating original and detailed responses across various prompts. This study challenges the notion of creativity as solely human and underscores the potential of AI to inspire and assist in creative endeavors across diverse domains.
This study presents a novel approach to landslide prediction by incorporating full seismic waveform data into a deep learning model. By leveraging a modified transformer neural network and synthetic waveforms from the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, the researchers demonstrated significant improvements over traditional models that rely solely on scalar intensity parameters. Their findings highlight the importance of considering waveform characteristics and spatial distribution for more accurate landslide risk assessment during earthquakes, offering valuable insights for disaster risk reduction efforts.
This study in the journal Applied Sciences utilizes large language models (LLMs) and artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze textual narratives from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) severe injury reports (SIR) database related to highway construction accidents. By employing LLMs such as GPT-3.5, along with natural language processing (NLP) techniques and clustering algorithms, the researchers identified major accident causes and types, providing valuable insights for improving accident prevention and intervention strategies in the industry.
This paper explores the applications of successor representation (SR) and its generalizations in advancing artificial intelligence (AI) agents' learning and transfer of behaviors. By reviewing various AI applications, including exploring Atari games without initial rewards, enhancing exploration in sparse-reward environments, and enabling transfer learning to novel tasks, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of SR-based approaches in efficient decision-making, adaptation to reward changes, and behavior transfer. SR and its variants offer promising avenues for developing adaptable and transferable AI agents across diverse domains.
This article explores the ramifications of the European Union (EU) Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) on high-risk AI systems, focusing on decision-support systems with human control, particularly in the context of DeepFake detection. By delving into requirements under the AIA and proposing an adapted evaluation scheme, the paper contributes to the design and evaluation of high-risk AI systems. It emphasizes the critical role of human oversight, qualitative feedback, and explainability in ensuring the efficacy and ethicality of AI applications, especially in forensic scenarios.
"npj Digital Medicine" presents a scoping review on AI applications in home-based virtual rehabilitation (VRehab), showing its effectiveness in stroke, cardiac, and orthopedic rehabilitation. AI-driven VRehab offers personalized feedback, enhances patient outcomes, and overcomes barriers to traditional rehabilitation, heralding a new era in accessible and efficient healthcare delivery. Further research is needed to standardize evaluation methods and ensure privacy while maximizing the potential of AI in personalized rehabilitation programs.
Analyzing 9,182 documents from 1989 to 2022, this study unveils the burgeoning role of Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) in realizing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). With a focus on interdisciplinary collaboration, global trends, and thematic evolution, it emphasizes the dynamic synergy between AI, IoT, and sustainability, guiding future endeavors in leveraging technology for global well-being.
Researchers introduce a pioneering system merging machine learning and knowledge graph technology to streamline medical diagnosis and treatment. Leveraging advanced methodologies like multiple levels refinement and knowledge distillation, the system empowers healthcare professionals with rapid and accurate solutions, offering a transformative tool for navigating complex medical research. Through iterative refinement and interactive exploration, this system provides comprehensive and relevant information, addressing key challenges in healthcare knowledge management.