Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence that focuses on developing algorithms and models capable of automatically learning and making predictions or decisions from data without being explicitly programmed. It involves training models on labeled datasets to recognize patterns and make accurate predictions or classifications in new, unseen data.
This study harnesses the CatBoost algorithm to predict transition temperatures (Tc) of superconducting materials, addressing challenges in dataset refinement and feature selection. Leveraging the Jabir and Soraya packages for generating atomic descriptors and selecting crucial features, the model achieved high accuracy with an R-squared (R2) of 0.952 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 6.45 K. Additionally, a novel web application for Tc prediction underscores the impactful synergy between AI and materials science.
Researchers investigated the feasibility of using machine learning (ML) models to predict the punching shear capacity of post-tensioned ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) flat slabs. By proposing correction factors based on finite element method-artificial intelligence (FEM-AI/ML) techniques, they extended the validity of punching shear capacity provisions in design codes like EC2 and ACI-318 to include PT-UHPC flat slabs.
The UK’s first master’s degree course focused on applying skills in AI to engineering and design is to begin this year at the University of Bath.
Researchers propose a novel approach for few-shot semantic segmentation, leveraging an ensemble of visual features learned from pre-trained classification and semantic segmentation networks. Their method utilizes a two-pass strategy, employing transductive meta-learning to improve prediction accuracy and mitigate false positives. Experimental results demonstrate significant performance improvements, achieving state-of-the-art results on benchmark datasets with minimal trainable parameters.
Researchers utilized various machine learning algorithms to develop predictive models for identifying students at risk of dropping out of secondary and higher education in Mexico. Leveraging demographic, socioeconomic, and educational data, the study demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial neural networks (ANN) in achieving high reliability (99%) in predicting school dropout, highlighting key variables such as school attendance, type, location, occupation, income, and marital status.
Researchers proposed a novel intrusion detection system (IDS) leveraging ensemble learning and deep neural networks (DNNs) to combat botnet attacks on Internet of Things (IoT) devices. By training device-specific DNN models on heterogeneous IoT data and aggregating predictions through ensemble averaging, the system achieved remarkable accuracy and effectively detected botnet activities. The study's structured methodology, comprehensive evaluation metrics, and ensemble approach offer promise in bolstering IoT security against evolving cyber threats.
This paper addresses the diagnostic challenges of distinguishing between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) by proposing a Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) method for speech assessment. By adapting speech analysis technology to Czech and employing machine learning techniques, the study demonstrates promising accuracy in classifying PD and ET patients, highlighting the potential of automated speech analysis as a robust diagnostic tool for movement disorders.
The article discusses the application of autoencoder neural networks in archaeometry, specifically in reducing the dimensions of X-ray fluorescence spectra for analyzing cultural heritage objects. Researchers utilized autoencoders to compress data and extract essential features, facilitating efficient analysis of elemental composition in painted materials. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach in attributing paintings to different creation periods based on pigment composition, highlighting its potential for automating and enhancing archaeological analyses.
Researchers employed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to denoise X-ray diffraction and resonant X-ray scattering data, overcoming challenges in structural analysis caused by experimental noise. By training CNNs with experimental data, they achieved remarkable accuracy in preserving structural features while removing noise, demonstrating the effectiveness of computational methods in advancing materials science research.
Researchers harnessed AI technology to create deepfake videos portraying various facial expressions, investigating their influence on observer perceptions in job interviews. The study highlights how deepfake facilitates controlled experimentation in studying nonverbal behavior, shedding light on its crucial role in social interactions and offering insights for job interview training and beyond.
Researchers developed a comprehensive system leveraging IoT and cloud computing to monitor and predict drinking water quality in real-time. The system integrates sensors, microcontrollers, web servers, and machine learning models to collect, transmit, analyze, and predict water quality parameters. Machine learning algorithms, particularly decision trees, achieved high accuracy in predicting drinkability, demonstrating the system's potential to enhance water safety and contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals.
This study explored the use of e-commerce data and machine learning (ML) algorithms to expedite poverty assessment in Indonesia. By employing statistical-based feature selection and comparing three ML algorithms, the research demonstrated the potential of this approach to provide timely and nuanced poverty predictions, offering valuable insights for policymakers. Despite challenges and limitations, such as data accessibility constraints, the study highlighted the promise of integrating e-commerce data, feature selection, and ML for effective poverty estimation, suggesting avenues for future research.
Researchers developed a novel approach using evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) to predict substance transport and decay, focusing on chlorine, in water distribution networks (WDNs). By employing symbolic machine learning, the study generated interpretable models, offering accurate estimations of substance concentrations at network nodes and facilitating real-time monitoring and control of water quality, with implications for system design and optimization in drinking water infrastructures.
Researchers introduce a novel approach to cybersecurity by extracting graph-based features from network traffic data and employing machine learning for early detection of cyber threats. Through experimentation and validation on the CIC-IDS2017 dataset, the method showcases superior performance compared to traditional connection analysis methods, indicating its potential for enhancing cybersecurity measures.
Researchers propose a novel approach utilizing ChatGPT and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms to advance low-carbon transformation in resource-based cities. Their study demonstrates significant improvements in energy efficiency, carbon emissions reduction, and traffic congestion alleviation, highlighting the potential of these methods in promoting green development and sustainable urban planning.
"npj Digital Medicine" presents a scoping review on AI applications in home-based virtual rehabilitation (VRehab), showing its effectiveness in stroke, cardiac, and orthopedic rehabilitation. AI-driven VRehab offers personalized feedback, enhances patient outcomes, and overcomes barriers to traditional rehabilitation, heralding a new era in accessible and efficient healthcare delivery. Further research is needed to standardize evaluation methods and ensure privacy while maximizing the potential of AI in personalized rehabilitation programs.
"Nature Machine Intelligence" presents research showcasing the adaptability of Large Language Models (LLMs), particularly GPT-3, in solving diverse chemistry and materials science tasks. By fine-tuning on small datasets, GPT-3 demonstrates superior performance compared to conventional machine learning methods, offering a paradigm shift in predictive chemistry and materials science with implications for model generalization and inverse design capabilities.
Researchers unveil a novel workflow employing deep learning and machine learning techniques to assess the vulnerability of East Antarctic vegetation to climate change. Utilizing high-resolution multispectral imagery from UAVs, XGBoost and U-Net classifiers demonstrate robust performance, highlighting the transformative potential of combining UAV technology and ML for non-invasive monitoring in polar ecosystems. Future research should focus on expanding training data and exploring other ML algorithms to enhance segmentation outcomes, furthering our understanding of Antarctic vegetation dynamics amid environmental challenges.
Researchers from the UK, Ethiopia, and India have developed an innovative robotic harvesting system that employs deep learning and computer vision techniques to recognize and grasp fruits. Tested in both indoor and outdoor environments, the system showcased promising accuracy and efficiency, offering a potential solution to the labor-intensive task of fruit harvesting in agriculture. With its adaptability to various fruit types and environments, this system holds promise for enhancing productivity and quality in fruit harvesting operations, paving the way for precision agriculture advancements.
Researchers introduce a pioneering system merging machine learning and knowledge graph technology to streamline medical diagnosis and treatment. Leveraging advanced methodologies like multiple levels refinement and knowledge distillation, the system empowers healthcare professionals with rapid and accurate solutions, offering a transformative tool for navigating complex medical research. Through iterative refinement and interactive exploration, this system provides comprehensive and relevant information, addressing key challenges in healthcare knowledge management.